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(Basic Education Program)

K-12(Spoken as k twelve”,” K through twelve or “K to twelve”) is a term for the sum of primary and secondary education. It is in the United States, Canada, South Korea, Turkey, the Philippines, And Australia. P-12 is also occasionally used in Australia.[1] The expression is a shortening of kindergarten (K) for 4- to 6- years olds through twelfth grade (12) for 17- 19-year-olds, the first and last grades of free education in these countries, respectively. Also called ELHI, as a short for Elementary to high school.


What is the K to 12 pprogram?

-The K to 12 program covers 12 years of basic education:

 1 year of kindergarten

 6 years of primary Education

 4 years of Junior High School

 2 years of Senior High school


Why do we need to add two years?

 Human Development of the child

      o A Filipino is legally a child until 18 years old.

      o Psychologists say children under 18 are not emotionally mature enough for entrepreneurship or employment.

      o Educators say children under 18 are not intellectually mature enough to handle higher education disciplines.

 Economic development of the country

     o The employable base will expand if high school graduates are prepared for work.

     o There will be more entrepreneurs if high school graduates are trained to start their own businesses.

     o The country should have fewer nonworking citizens.

 Curricular changes due to international conditions

     o The knowledge economy, climate change, migration, etc., need to be addressed by the curriculum.

     o International accreditation (e.g., Bologna, Washington Accord) assumes longer cycle.


How do we add the two years?

 Building on what we already have rather than reinventing the wheel.

 Looking at the entire education highway or system

 Minimizing disruption in the system

 Amending existing laws

 Gradually or incrementally

 With proper curricular planning

 With teacher training one grade level at a time

 Using instructional materials that are already available

 With support from all stakeholders

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